Streptococci infection causes sore throat because it causes tissue irritation throat and tonsils and painful inflammation. A sore throat may occur due to viral infection or of a non-infectious causes, such as smoke irritation, dry air, allergies and neck injuries.
Streptococcal pharyngitis represents a contagious infection of the tissues of the pharynx and / or tonsils. The infection is caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, bacteria globular form, which are divided into groups A, B, C, D, G strep throat usually cause beta-hemolytic group A streptococci, lat. Streptococcus pyogenes, although it is possible infections and groups C and G . Infection streptococci cause sore throat because irritating the tissues of the throat and tonsils and painful inflammation. It should be mentioned that the sore throat may also occur due to viral infection or of a non-infectious causes, such as smoke irritation, dry air, allergies and neck injuries. Streptococci are transmitted from person to person, either by air or by touching. Because the bacteria found in the nose and throat, can be easily transferred to another person by sneezing, coughing, shaking hands or other touching. Also, people can become infected by touching an object with which the infected person has been in contact. The incubation period, or the time that elapses from infection by bacteria, until the onset of symptoms, ranging from two to five days. If the symptoms are not treated, a person can be contagious two to three weeks of their occurrence.
The symptoms of streptococcal infection
The most common symptoms of streptococcal sore throat are: sudden and sudden sore throat without coughing and sneezing, tonsils are enlarged and inflamed, pain and difficulty in swallowing, gray, white or yellow spots or coating of the tonsils and pharynx, lymph glands in the neck can become inflamed , increased and sensitive to the touch, red throat, temperature over 38 ° C (lower temperature may be an indication of viral infection). In addition to these symptoms, less likely, but possible are pain in the lower abdomen, headache, nausea and loss of appetite, muscle aches and a rash on the skin. In the case of rashes on the skin, which gradually expands from the neck and chest to the whole body, which must have been scarlet fever, which is not dangerous if left untreated. It is important to recognize the symptoms of streptococcal sore throat and to distinguish them from ordinary sore throat or a viral infection. Streptococcal sore throat usually has no symptoms accompanying regular or viral sore throat, such as sneezing, coughing, runny nose or nasal congestion. As a rule, the more symptoms of a cold or sore throat common, it is less likely that you are infected with a bacterial throat infection. Infections Streptococcal bacteria usually disappear within seven days. If left untreated, infected people are infectious for considerably longer period of time, while there are also some complications. Although rare, these complications include ear infections or sinus infections or rheumatic fever, or inflammation of the kidneys.
“Smear” Culture throat
Diagnostic criteria called the modified Centor scale physicians facilitate decision making about the treatment of people with sore throat. Centor scale consists of five clinical measurements or views. It is used to determine the probability of the presence of streptococcal sore throat.
For each of the following criteria is awarded one point: the cough is not present, swollen lymph nodes or lymph nodes painful to touch, body temperature higher than 38 ° C, purulent accumulations on the tonsils or swollen tonsils, infected person younger than 15 years (if the person older than 44 years, takes the point)
Laboratory tests are based on tests called smear culture of the throat which is the main way to detect streptococcal sore throat. This testing is cut in 90 to 95 percent of all cases. Sample “smear” throat is taken with the aid of sticks, and then in a laboratory environment sets the container in which the medium that encourages the growth of disease-causing organisms. If you are under a microscope observed the growth of organisms, then the test is positive. In the event that the doctor does not notice any growth of organisms, the test is negative. There is another test called a rapid test for proof of streptococci or test for the rapid detection of antigen RADT (Eng. Rapid antigen detection test). Quick test for proof of streptococci faster than the analysis of the culture of the throat, but exactly reveals the disease in only 70 percent of cases. Both tests can prove that the person is not suffering from streptococcal sore throat. In 98 percent of cases it can be accurately prove pretragama.Kada a person is sick, the throat culture or rapid test for proof of streptococci can show if a person is suffering from streptococcal sore throat. People without symptoms should not go to the search throat culture or rapid strep test to prove as individuals in their throats are strep bacteria without bad results of the findings. These persons not need treatment.
Some of the symptoms of streptococcal sore throat are the same as symptoms of other diseases. Therefore, it is difficult to know whether a person is suffering from streptococcal sore throat without a throat culture or time of rapid test for proof of streptococci. If a person has a fever and sore throat, cough, runny nose, diarrhea and redness and itching eyes, likely cause of sore throat is a virus. Infectious mononucleosis can cause swollen lymph nodes in the neck and a sore throat, fever and enlarged tonsils. Diagnosis is made by blood test. For infectious mononucleosis there is no prescribed treatment.